Nerve Conduction Study Information
WHAT IS NERVE CONDUCTION TESTING?
A nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test — also called a nerve conduction study (NCS) — measures how fast an electrical impulse moves through your nerve. NCV can identify nerve damage.
During the test, your nerve is stimulated, usually with electrode patches attached to your skin. Two electrodes are placed on the skin over your nerve. One electrode stimulates your nerve with a very mild electrical impulse. The other electrode records it. The resulting electrical activity is recorded by another electrode. This is repeated for each nerve being tested.
The speed is then calculated by measuring the distance between electrodes and the time it takes for electrical impulses to travel between electrodes.
A related test that may be done is an electromyography (EMG). This measures the electrical activity in your muscles. It is often done at the same time as an NCV. Both tests help find the presence, location, and extent of diseases that damage the nerves and muscles.
WHY MIGHT I NEED A NERVE CONDUCTION TEST?
NCS is often used along with an EMG to tell the difference between a nerve disorder and a muscle disorder. NCS detects a problem with the nerve, whereas an EMG detects whether the muscle is working properly in response to the nerve's stimulus.
Diseases or conditions that may be checked with NCS include:
Guillain-Barré syndrome. A condition in which the body's immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The first symptoms may include weakness or a tingling sensation in the legs.
Carpal tunnel syndrome. A condition in which the median nerve, which runs from the forearm into the hand, becomes pressed or squeezed at the wrist by enlarged tendons or ligaments. This causes pain and numbness in the fingers.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. An inherited neurological condition that affects both the motor and sensory nerves. It causes weakness of the foot and lower leg muscles.
Herniated disk disease. This condition occurs when the fibrous cartilage that surrounds the disks of your vertebrae breaks down. The center of each disk, which contains a gelatinous substance, is forced outward. This places pressure on a spinal nerve and causes pain and damage to the nerve.
Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy and neuropathy. These are conditions resulting from diabetes or alcoholism. Symptoms may include numbness or tingling in a single nerve or many nerves at the same time.
Sciatic nerve problems. There are many causes of sciatic nerve problems. The most common is a bulging or ruptured spinal disk that presses against the roots of the nerve leading to the sciatic nerve. Pain, tingling, or numbness often result.
Nerve conduction studies may also be done to find the cause of symptoms, such as numbness, tingling, and continuous pain.
Other conditions may prompt your healthcare provider to recommend NCV.
WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF NERVE CONDUCTION TEST?
The voltage of the electrical pulses used during an NCS is considered very low. Risks depend on your specific medical condition. Be sure to discuss any concerns with your healthcare provider before the procedure.
Certain factors or conditions may interfere with the results of NCS tests. This includes damage to the spinal cord, severe pain before the test, and body temperature.
Tell your healthcare provider if you have a cardiac defibrillator or pacemaker, as precautions may need to be taken.
HOW DO I GET READY FOR A NCS TEST?
Your healthcare provider will explain the procedure and you can ask questions.
Generally, you will not need to fast or get sedation before the procedure.
Normal body temperature must be maintained before and during the procedure, as low body temperature slows nerve conduction.
Tell your healthcare provider of all medicines (prescription and over-the-counter) and herbal supplements that you take.
Dress in clothes that allow access to the area to be tested or that are easily removed.
Stop using lotions or oils on your skin for a few days before your procedure.
Based on your medical condition, your healthcare provider may request other preparation
WHAT HAPPENS DURING A NCS TEST?
An NCS procedure may be done on an outpatient basis, or as part of your stay in a hospital. Procedures may vary depending on your condition and your doctor's practices.
The NCS is done by a neurologist. A technologist may also do some parts of the test.
Generally, an NCS procedure follows this process:
You will be asked to remove any clothing, jewelry, hairpins, eyeglasses, hearing aids, or other metal objects that may interfere with the procedure.
If you are asked to remove clothing, you will be given a gown to wear.
You will be asked to sit or lie down for the test.
A neurologist will locate the nerve(s) to be studied.
A healthcare provider will attach a recording electrode to the skin over your nerve, using a special paste. He or she will then place a stimulating electrode away from the recording electrode, at a known distance.
A mild and brief electrical shock, given through the stimulating electrode, will stimulate your nerve.
You may experience minor discomfort for a few seconds.
The stimulation of the nerve and the response will be displayed on a monitor.
WHAT HAPPENS AFTER NCS?
The paste used to attach the electrodes will be removed from your skin. You may need EMG testing after NCS this is determined by the physician on a case-by-case basis.
After the test, you may return to your previous activities, unless your healthcare provider advises you differently. Your healthcare provider may instruct you to avoid strenuous activities for the rest of the day.
Your healthcare provider may give you other instructions after the procedure, depending on your situation. If you experience any discomfort after the test use ice and/or tylenol if you are able to take without allergy or adverse events.
Citation: Nerve Conduction Studies . Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/treatment-tests-and-therapies/nerve-conduction-studies